Known and Suspected Carcinogens


The following chemicals are known or suspected carcinogens. This list has been compiled from a number of sources

(in particular, we are grateful for data from the excellent Cornell carcinogen database), but it is by no means comprehensive.

Therefore, the absence of a chemical from this list does not mean that it cannot have carcinogenic properties. Neither does the presence of a chemical in the list indicate that it is a proven carcinogen.

However, users should treat the following materials with the caution due to suspected carcinogens, and gather as much safety data as possible before starting work. Restrictions apply to the use of some of these chemicals in the U.K. We have done our best to ensure the data below is as accurate as possible, but cannot accept responsibility for its use or mis-use.

Updated January 14th, 1998

 


A

 

A-alpha-C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole)

Acetaldehyde

Acetamide

Acetochlor

2-Acetylaminofluorene

Acifluorfen

Acrylamide

Acrylonitrile

Actinomycin D

Adriamycin (Doxorubicin hydrochloride)

AF-2;[2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)]acrylamide

Aflatoxins

Agaritine

Alachlor

Aldrin

Allyl chloride

Aallyl isothiocyanae

Allyl isovalerate

Aluminium products

2-Aminoanthraquinone

p-Aminoazobenzene

o-Aminoazotoluene [solvent yellow 3]

4-Aminobiphenyl (4-aminodiphenyl)

3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole hydrochloride

1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone

2-Amino-5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole amino-5-nitrothiazole, 2-

Amitrole

Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin

Androgenic (anabolic) steroids

Aniline

ortho-Anisidine

ortho-Anisidine hydrochloride anthanthrene

Antimony oxide (antimony trioxide)

Aramite

Arsenic (inorganic arsenic compounds)

Asbestos

Auramine

Azaserine

Azathioprine

Azacitidine

Azobenzene

Azathioprine

 


B

Benz[a]anthracene

Benzene

Benzidine [and its salts]

Benzidine-based dyes

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

Benzo[j]fluoranthene

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

Benzofuran

Benzo[a]pyrene

Benzotrichloride

Benzyl chloride

Benzyl violet 4B

Beryllium and beryllium compounds

Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether

N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2- naphthylamine (Chlornapazine)

Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) (Carmustine)

Bis(chloromethyl)ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether

Bitumens, extracts of steam-refined and air refined

Bleomycins

Bracken fern

Bromodichloromethane

Bromoform

1,3-Butadiene

1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate (Busulfan, myleran)

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

beta-Butyrolactone

 


C

Cadmium and cadmium compounds

Caffeic acid

Captafol

Captan

Carbazole

Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon-black extracts

Carrageenan, degraded

Ceramic fibers (airborne particles of respirable size)

Chlorambucil

Chloramphenicol

chlorbenzilat

Chlordane

Chlordecone (Kepone)

Chlordimeform

Chlorendic acid

Chlorinated Parrafins

alpha-Chlorinated toluenes

p-Chloroaniline

Cchlormadinone aceate

Chlornaphazine[n,n-bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine]

Chlorodibromomethane

Chloroethane (ethyl chloride)

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) (Lomustine)

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (Methyl-CCNU)

Chloroform

Chloromethyl methyl ether

3-Chloro-2-methylpropene

4-Chloro-ortho-phenylenediamine

p-Chloro-o-toluidine

Chlorophenols

Chlorophenoxy herbicides

Cloroprene

Chlorothalonil

Chlorozotocin

Chromim

Chromium (hexavalent compounds)

Chrysene

C. I. Acid Red 114

C. I. Basic Red 9 monohydrochloride

Ciclosporin (Cyclosporin A; Cyclosporine)

Cinnamyl anthranilate

Cisplatin

Citrus Red No. 2

Clofibrate

Coal gasification

Coal-tar pitches

Coal-tars

Cobalt metal powder

Cobalt [II] oxide

Conjugated estrogens

Creosotes

para-Cresidine

Cupferron

Cycasin

Cyclamates

Cyclophosphamide (anhydrous)

Cyclophosphamide (hydrated)

 


D

D&C Orange No. 17

D&C Red No. 8

D&C Red No. 9

D&C Red No. 19

Dacarbazine

Daminozide

Dantron (Chrysazin; 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone)

dapsone

Daunomycin

DCM

DDD (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)

DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene)

DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)

DDVP (Dichlorvos)

decabromodiphyenyl oxide

N,N'-Diacetylbenzidine

2,4-Diaminoanisole

2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate

4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether (4,4'-Oxydianiline)

2,4-Diaminotoluene

Diaminotoluene (mixed)

Dibenz[a,h]acridine

Dibenz[a,j]acridine

Dibenz[a,h]anthracene

7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole

Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene

Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene

Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene

Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

1,2-Dibromoethane

2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol

p-Dichlorobenzene

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride

1,4-Dichloro-2-butene

3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether

1,1-Dichloroethane

1,2-Dichloroethane

Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride)

1,2-Dichloropropane

1,3-Dichloropropene

Dieldrin

Dienestrol

Diepoxybutane

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

1,2-Diethylhydrazine

Diethyl sulfate

DES, Diethylstilbestrol

Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (DGRE)

Dihydrosafrole

Diisopropyl sulfate

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (ortho-Dianisidine)

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride (ortho-dianisidine dihydrochloride)

para-Dimethylaminoazobenzene

4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene

trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl]-1,3,4- oxadiazole

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (ortho-Tolidine)

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine

Dimethyl sulfate

Dimethylvinyl Chloride

1,6-Dinitropyrene

1,8-Dinitropyrene

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

2,6-Dinitrotoluene

1,4-Dioxane

Diphenylhydantoin (Phenytoin)

Diphenylhydantoin (Phenytoin), sodium salt

Direct Black 38

Direct Blue 6

Direct Brown 95

Disperse Blue 1

 


E

Epichlorohydrin

Erionite

Estradiol 17B

Estrogens (not conjugated)

 

Estradiol-17

Estrone

Ethinylestradiol

Mestranol

 

Estrone

Ethinylestradiol

Ethyl acrylate

Ethyl methanesulfonate

Ethyl-4,4'-dichlorobenzilate

Ethylene dibromide

Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)

N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea

Ethylene oxide

Ethylene thiourea

Ethyleneimine

 


F

Folpet

Formaldehyde (gas or aqueous solution)

2-(2-Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl) thiazole

Furan

Furazolidone

Furmecyclox

Fusarin C

 


G

Glasswool fibers (airborne particles of respirable size)

Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2- a:3', 2'-d]imidazole)

Glu-P-2 (2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole)

Glycidaldehyde

Glycidol

Griseofulvin

Gyromitrin (Acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone)

 


H

HC Blue 1

Heptachlor

Heptachlor epoxide

Hexachlorobenzene

Hexachlorocyclohexanes

Hexachlorodibenzodioxin

Hexachloroethane

Hexamethylphosphoramide

Hydrazine

Hydrazine sulfate

Hydrazobenzene (1,2-Diphenylhydrazine)

 


I

Indeno [1,2,3-cd]pyrene

IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)

Iron dextran complex

Isosafrole

 


K

 

Kepone (Chlordecone)

 


L

Lactofen

Lasiocarpine

Lead

Lead acetate

Lead phosphate

Lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexane isomers

 


M

Mancozeb

Maneb

Me-A-alpha-C (2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2, 3-b]indole)

Medroxyprogesterone acetate

MeIQ(2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)

MeIQx(2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline)

Melphalan

Merphalan

Mestranol

2-Methylaziridine (Propyleneimine)

Methylazoxymethanol

Methylazoxymethanol acetate

3-Methylcholanthrene

5-Methylchrysene

4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)

4,4'-Methylene bis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine

4,4'-Methylene bis(2-methylaniline)

4,4'-Methylenedianiline

4,4'-Methylenedianiline dihydrochloride

Methylhydrazine and its salts

Methyl chloromethyl ether

Methyl-CCNU

Methyl iodide

Methyl methanesulfonate

2-Methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone

N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)

N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea

N-Methylolacrylamide

Methylthiouracil

Metiram

Metronidazole

Michler's ketone

Mineral Oils, untreated and mildly treated

Mirex

Mitomycin C

MOPP

Monocrotaline

5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitro-fufurylidene)-amino]-2-oxazolidinone

Mustard gas

 


N

Nafenopin

1-Naphthylamine

2-Naphthylamine

3-Naphthylamine

Nickel and certain nickel compounds

Nickel carbonyl

Nickel subsulfide

Niridazole

Nitrilotriacetic acid

Nitrilotriacetic acid, trisodium salt monohydrate

5-Nitroacenaphthene

5-Nitro-o-anisidine

o-Nitroanisole

4-Nitrobiphenyl

6-Nitrochrysene

Nitrofen

2-Nitrofluorene

Nitrofurazone

1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-imidazollidinone

1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)-N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2 thiazolyl]acetamide

Nitrogen mustard (Mechlorethamine)

Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride (Mechlorethamine hydrochloride)

Nitrogen mustard N-oxide

Nitrogen mustard N-oxide hydrochloride

2-Nitropropane

4-Nitropyrene

N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine

N-Nitrosodiethanolamine

N-Nitrosodiethylamine

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

p-Nitrosodiphenylamine

N-Nitrosodiphenylamine

N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine

N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea

3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile

4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

N-Nitrosomethylethylamine

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

N-Nitroso-N-methylurethane

N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine

N-Nitrosomorpholine

N-Nitrosonornicotine

N-Nitrosopiperidine

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine

N-Nitrososarcosine

Norethisterone (Norethindrone)

 


O

Ochratoxin A

Oestrogen, nonstreoidal

Oestrogen, steroidal

Oil Orange SS

4,4'-Oxydianiline

Oxadiazon

Oxymetholone

Oxazepam

 


P

Panfuran S

Pentachlorophenol

Phenacetin

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride

Phenesterin

Phenobarbital

Phenoxybenzamine

Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride

Phenyl glycidyl ether

Phenylhydrazine and its salts

o-Phenylphenate, sodium

Phenytoin

PhiP(2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine)

Polybrominated biphenyls

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Polychlorinated biphenyls (containing 60 or more percent chlorine by molecular weight)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Polygeenan

Ponceau MX

Ponceau 3R

Potassium bromate

Procarbazine

Procarbazine hydrochloride

Procymidone

Progesterone

Progestins

1,3-Propane sultone

Progargite

beta-Propiolactone

Propylene oxide

Propylthiouracil

 


R

 

Radionuclides

Radon

Reserpine

Residual (heavy) fuel oils

 


S

Saccharin

Saccharin, sodium

Safrole

Selenium sulfide

Shale-oils

Silica, crystalline (airborne particles of respirable size)

Sodium dichromate

Sodium hexafluoroarsenate(V)

Sodium ortho-phenylphenate

Sterigmatocystin

Streptozotocin

Styrene

Styrene oxide

Sulfallate

Sulphur trioxide N,N-dimethylformamide complex

 


T

Talc containing asbestiform fibers

Terrazole

Testosterone and its esters

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD)

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene)

p-a,a,a-Tetrachlorotoluene

Tetranitromethane

Thioacetamide

4,4'-Thiodianiline

Thiourea

Thorium dioxid

Tobacco, oral use of smokeless products

Tobacco smoke

Toluene diisocyanate

ortho-Toluidine

ortho-Toluidine hydrochloride

para-Toluidine

Toxaphene (Polychorinated camphenes)

Treosulfan (Tresoluphan)

Trichlormethine (Trimustine hydrochloride)

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

1,2,3-Trichloropropane

Triphenyltin hydroxide

Trichloroethylene

Tris(aziridinyl)-para-benzoquinone (Triaziquone)

Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide (Thiotepa)

Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate

Trp-P-1 (Tryptophan-P-1) (3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)

Trp-P-2 (Tryptophan-P-2) (3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)

Trypan blue

 


U

Uracil mustard

Urethane (Ethyl carbamate)

 


V

Vinyl bromide

Vinyl chloride

4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide (Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide)

Vinyl trichloride (1,1,2-Trichloroethane)

 


X

2,6-Xylidine (2,6-Dimethylaniline)

 


Z

 

Zineb